1. Next week is #BrainAwarenessWeek! #byu #neuroscience #baw


  2. Image: This #neurosphere (bottom left) was prepared from neural stem cells extracted from an embryonic rat midbrain. After allowing the cells to proliferate and expand for 7 days, they were imaged with confocal #microscopy. Cells differentiated to neurons are labeled red with an antibody to βIII-tubulin, whereas astrocytes are labeled green with an antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament specific to astrocytes. All nuclei are stained blue with bisbenzamide.

    When cultured with growth factors in vitro, neural #stemcells can generate neurons (red), as well as the cells that support them— astrocytes (green) and #oligodendrocytes. In culture, neural stem cells group together in ball-like clusters, called neurospheres (bottom left). Neurospheres are of great therapeutic interest because they have the potential to regenerate and replace neurons lost in traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases, such as #Parkinsons disease, #Alzheimers disease, and multiple sclerosis
    (#MS). #byu #neuroscience


  3. Case study: 32 year old female with history of psychiatric illness and no known preexisting conditions. She was brought in by the family due to alteration in mental status. #CT scan showing acute hemorrhagic stroke with #subarachnoid hemorrhage and venous #thrombosis. Treated by #anticoagulation. #neuroscience #neurodisease #byu


  4. Human #neurons derived from #stemcells (red: neuronal processes, blue: #nuclei) #neuroscience #byu


  5. Magnetic Resonance Angiogram of the #Brain

    Magnetic resonance angiography (#MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (#MRI) to image #blood vessels. Magnetic resonance #angiography is used to generate images of the arteries in order to evaluate them for stenosis (abnormal narrowing), #occlusion or #aneurysms (vessel wall dilation that is at risk of rupture). #byu #neuroscience


  6. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which reversibly eliminate sensation, and include paracetamol (known in the US as #acetaminophen or simply APAP), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as #morphine and #opium.

    #Analgesic choice is determined by the type of pain: for neuropathic pain, traditional analgesics are less effective, and there is often benefit from classes of drugs that are not normally considered analgesics, such as tricyclic #antidepressants and #anticonvulsants. #byu #neuroscience


  7. Image: Widefield multi-photon fluorescence image of a rat hippocampus stained to reveal the distribution of #glia (cyan), #neurofilaments (green) and #cell nuclei (yellow). The image was produced as part of an ongoing brain mapping project for the Whole Brain Catalog.

    For decades researchers thought that the production of neurons stopped early in life, leaving the adult brain with a finite number of neurons. The discovery of neural #stemcells with self-renewing capacity and multi-potency has radically changed this view, and it is now well accepted that the birth of new neurons continues throughout adulthood. Adult neurogenesis occurs in two primary locations: the olfactory bulb and the central part of the #hippocampus, called the dendate gyrus. #byu #neuroscience


  8. New advances in #fMRI

    Using one of the strongest #MRI machines available, with a field strength three to six times that of typical clinical scanners, researchers at #Vanderbilt produce brain scans that resolved millimeter-scale networks for the first time.

    To compare these patterns to the actual electrical activity in the brains, the researchers inserted electrodes capable of recording the firing patterns of individual #neurons. In addition, they used optical techniques to trace the anatomical connections between the neurons throughout the region. #neuroscience #byu #anatomy


  9. #Nicotine activates the dopamine system and reward-related regions in the brain. Nicotine withdrawal naturally results in decreased activity of these regions, which has been closely associated with craving, relapse, and continued nicotine consumption.

    One of the critical reward-related regions is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which can be targeted using a brain stimulation technology called transcranial magnetic stimulation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive procedure that uses magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells. It does not require sedation or anesthesia and so patients remain awake, reclined in a chair, while treatment is administered through coils placed near the forehead.
    #neuroscience #byu #addiction #smoking


  10. This is a hippocampal #neuron infected with GFP and DsRed. Notice the different branches the dendrites have made to receive input from other neurons.

    The #hippocampus is responsible for the encoding of memories and also helpful in memory retrieval. As you study for spring #finals or in many cases, “cram”), you give your hippocampus quite a workout. It cycles information over and over, strengthening connections to help you remember facts, people, events, etc. Without your hippocampus you’d be unable to form new memories.
    #neuroscience #byu #finalsweek